Chilli is the dried ripe fruit of the genus Capsicum. Capsicum annuam is an annual sub –shrub, the flowers of which are borne singly and fruits usually pendent, which provide red peppers, cayenne, paprika, chilies and sweet pepper (bell pepper) a mild form with large inflated fruits. It is used in various foods as ingredients. Capsaicin has excellent medical remedy as a result it is also utilized in health sector.
Chili pepper is the fruit of capsicum type of flowering plants. Based on the place and type, chili has different names. Spicy variant is famous as chili pepper or chilies while those mild or sweet are popular as red pepper, green pepper, bell pepper or just capsicum. The capsicum has a taste similar to the black pepper hence it is also known as a pepper.
Chili is originated from the western hemisphere where it is used in food. Currently, Chili is spread across the world after Indigenous people shared them with travelers. In pre-Columbian time, Peru cultivates the highest diversity of Chili and all five (annuum, frutescens, chinense, pubescens and baccatum) domesticates were introduced, grown, and consumed.
Capsicum grows well in tropical and sub-tropical regions. However, warm and humid climate is best for the growth and dry weather during the maturation of fruits. Capsicum grows in a wide range of soils though black soils which retain moisture for long periods are suitable for rainfed crop whereas well drained soils, deltaic soils and sandy loams are good under irrigated condition.
Capsicum is harvested in almost all states of India. However, the state Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka together produces 70% of total production. Capsicum is sowed in two seasons (Nov-Jan, May-Jun).Green chilies are harvested after 110 to 120 days after sowing whereas red chilies are harvested after 140-150 days from sowing.
Peppers are commonly grouped in three categories such as bell pepper, sweet pepper and hot pepper. There are numerous variety of chili grows in India out of which most famous one are Kashmiri, Teja (S17), Guntur (sanam-S4/334), Bird’s eye chili (Dhani), Naga, Mundu, Jwala, Kanthri, Byadagi (Kaddi), and Hindpur-S7.
Chilies are commonly available in green or red fresh, frozen, canned, caramelized, pickled, and chopped forms. The dry chili products are also available as flakes, crushed, powder and seeds form.
Different variant of chilies are differentiated based on amount of capsaicin which is a lipophilic chemical (a chemical compound which can dissolve in lipids, meaning fats and oils) that produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact and is irritant to mammals.
- Red Chili is a popular condiment used as spice or garnishing purpose. It is also used as a pickle and a key ingredient to various sauces. Crushed flakes are sprinkled to number of seafood cuisines, soups, pizzas and also added to baked food.
HEALTH BENEFITS RED CHILLI
- Health Benefits Red Chilli
- Helps in weight loss and prevents atherosclerosis and colon cancer
- Helps to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and stimulate the blood flow
- Aids in clearing mucus from nose and lugs by clearing sinuses and causing sweating
- Relieves respiratory problems and sore throat
- Helps to avoid stomach aches, gas and cramps
- It helps the nerves to distract from joint pain, which are otherwise contracted due to arthritis.
CAUTION: Excess consumption may cause burning sensations in throat, stomach, or rectum